• As a general rule, and specifically for confidentiality reasons, we do not publish papers on research programs undertaken for industry unless we are requested to do so in a joint publication.

  • The majority of our publications derive from research carried out for government agencies, which encourage publication, and from our (pro bono) interactions with academia (professors, post docs, and grad students.)

  • Our papers published with academia highlight how supercritical fluid extraction or fractionation provides information for academic researchers, on their experimental materials. Usually the information cannot be obtained or deduced from application of traditional separation techniques.

  • Additionally, the information that Phasex learns from these joint studies enhances our knowledge base from which we draw upon for future application to industrial problems. The papers are listed in reverse chronological order below.

 


 

Exploatory Characterization of a Perfluoropolyether Oil as a Possible Viscosiy Standard at Deepwater Production Conditions of 533K and 241PMpa. Hseen O. Baled, Deepak Tapriyal, Bryan D. Morreale, Yee Soong, Isaac Gamwo, Val Krukonis, Babatubde A Bamgbade, Yue Wu, Mark A McHugh, Ward A. Burgess, Robert M. Enick, Int J Thermophys 34:1845-1864 (2013).

Where Are We Today. Val Krukonis, 10th International Symposium on Supercritical Fluids, L-301, San Francisco, May 13-16, 2012.

Polymer Architecture Effects of Solution Behavior of High Pressure: Linear, Hyperbranched, and Star Polymers in Supercritical Fluids and Liquid Solvents. Yue Wu, Matthew S. Newkirk, Babatunde Bamgbade, Mark A. McHugh, Val Krukonis, Paula Wetmore, Kara Williams, 10th International Symposium on Supercritical Fluids, L-135, San Francisco, May 13-16 (2012).

Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Omega-3 Oils from Disrupted Yarrowia Lipolytica Yeast. Keith W. Hutchenson, William M. Jack, Val Krukonis, Shu-Chien Liang, Robert D. Orlandi, Hans Schonemann, Gregg Sunshine, 10th International Symposium on Supercritical Fluids, L-118, San Francisco, May 13-16 (2012).

Critical Size Ratio for Viscosity Reduction in Poly(dimethylsiloxane) - Polysilicate Nanocomposites. Schmidt, R.G., Gordon, G.V., Dreiss, C.A., Cosgrove, T., Krukonis, V.J., Williams, K., Wetmore, P.M., Macromolecules, 43(23), 10143, (2010).

Impact of Polymer Molecular Weight of Poly(dimethylsiloxane) - Polysilicate Nanocomposites. Schmidt, R.G., Gordon, G.V., Dreiss, C.A., Cosgrove, T., Krukonis, V.J., Williams, K., Wetmore, P.M., Macromolecules, 43(23), 10132, (2010).

Branched Polyethylenes Fractionated in Supercritical Propane. Pelascini, F., Plentz-Meneghetti, S., Lutz, P., Krukonis, V., Williams, K.,  Macromolecular Research, 18(5), 449, (2010).

Transparent Fluids for 157-nm Immersion Lithography. Kunz, R.R., Switkes, M., Sinta, R., Curtin, J.E., French, R.H., Wheland, R.C., Kao, C.C., Mawn, M.P., Lin, L., Wetmore, P., Krukonis, V., Williams, K., J. Microlithography, Microfabrication, and Microsystems, 3(1), 73, (2004).

Heterogeneous Composition and Microstructure from a Sterically Hindered 2-Arylindenylhafnium Catalyst. Wiyanto, W., Chen, Z-R., Liu, Y., Waymouth, R.M., Krukonis, V., Brennan, K.,, Macromolecules, 37(3), 701, (2004).

Immersion Liquids for Lithography in the Deep Ultraviolet. Switkes, M., Kunz, R.R., Sinta, R., Rothschild, M., Gallagher-Wetmore, P.M., Krukonis, V., Williams, K., Optical Microlithography XVI, Proc. SPIE, 5040, 690, (Jun. 2003).

Improvement of the Dissolution Rate of Artemisinin by Means of Supercritical Fluid Technology and Solid Dispersions. Van Nijlen, T., Brennan, K., Van den Mooter, G., Blaton, N., Kinget, R., Augustijns, P., Int’l J. Pharmaceutics, 7379, 1, (2003).

Understanding Nonlinear Dissolution Rates in Photoresists. Burns, S., Gardiner, A., Krukonis, V., Wetmore, P., Schmid, G., Lutkenhaus, J., Flanagin, L., Willson, C.G., Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XVIII, Proc. SPIE, 4345, 37, (2001).

Advantages and Limits of Palladium Catalysts Containing Diimine or Related Ligands for the (Co)Polymerization of Olefins. Lutz, P.J., Plezty Meneghetti, S., Kress, J., Krukonis, V., Brennan, K., Muller, R., Polymeric Materials, Science & Engineering, 84, 324 (2001).

Multiarm-Star Polyisobutylene-Polystyrene Themoplastic Elastomers from a Novel Multifunctional Initiator. Puskas, J.E., Pattern, W., Wetmore, P.M., Krukonis, V.,, Proc. ACS PMSE Div., Spring Meeting, Mar. 21-25, 80, 429 (2000).

Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Multiarm-Star Polyisobutylene-Polystyrene Thermoplastic Elastomers. Puskas, J.E., Pattern, W., Wetmore, P.M., Krukonis, V.,Rubber Chem. Technol., 72(4), 559, (1999).

Supercritical Fluid Fractionation of Polyisobutylene-Polystyrene Block Copolymers. Puskas, J.E., Wetmore, P.M., Krukonis, V., Polym. Prepr. (Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem.), 40(2), 1037, (1999).

High-Density Polyethylene Fractionation with Supercritical Propane. Britto, L. J. D., Soares, J. B. P., Penlidis, A., Krukonis, V., J. Polym. Sci. B: Polym. Phys., 37, 553, (1999).

The Measurement of Concentration Gradients in Resist Films by a "Halt Development’ Technique”. Burns, S., Gardiner, A., Krukonis, V., Wetmore, P., Qin, A., Willson, C.G.,  Proc. ACS PMSE Div., 81, 81, (1999).

Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Multiarm-Star Polyisobutylene-Polystyrene Thermoplastic Elastomers. Puskas, J.E., Pattern, W., Wetmore, P.M., Krukonis, V., Proc. ACS Rubber Div., Paper #81, Nashville, (Oct. 1998).

Percolation View of Novolak Dissolution. 10. Effect of Molecular Weight. Shih, H-Y., Zhuang, H., Reiser, A., Tevaoka, I., Goodman, J., Gallagher-Wetmore, P.M., Macromolcular, 31, 1208, (1998).

Supercritical Fluids and Silicones: Over a Decade of Applications. Wetmore, P.M., Krukonis, V., Silicones in Coatings II, Proc., Paper 13, (Mar. 1998).

Phase behavior of CO2-perfluoropolyether oil mixtures and CO2-perfluoropolyether chelating agent mixtures. Enick, R., Beckman, E., Yazdi, A., Krukonis, V., Schonemann, H., Howell, J., SCFs, 13, 121, (1998).

Fractionation of Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) in Supercritical Propylene: Towards a Molecular Understanding of a Complex Macromolecule. Folie, B., Kelchtermans, M., Shutt, J.R., Schonemann, H., Krukonis, V., J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 64, 2015, (1997).

A Novel Combination of Photoactive Species: Photoresists Formed by Selectively Esterified Novolaks and Polyfunctional Photoactive Compounds. Jeffries III, A.T., Brzozowy, D.J., Naiini, A.A., Gallagher-Wetmore, P., Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XIV, Proc. SPIE 3049, (Feb. 1997).

Structure and Property Relationships of Fractionated Novolac Resins. Chen, K.J.R., Kwong, R., Jordhamo, G. Allen, R.D., Gallagher-Wetmore, P., Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XIV, Proc. SPIE, 3049, 596, (Feb. 1997).

Supercritical Fluid Processing: Opportunities for New Resist Materials and Processes. Gallagher-Wetmore, P.M., Ober, C.K., Gabor, A.H., Allen, R.D., Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography X, Proc. SPIE, 2725, 289, (Mar. 1996).

Selectively Esterified Novolac Resins: A Study of Resist Properties as a Function of Novolac Molecular Weight and Composition. Jeffries III, A.T., Brzozowy, D.J., Beauchemin, B.T., Naiini, A.A., Fitzgerald, E.A., Gallagher-Wetmore, P.M., Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XIII, Proc. SPIE, 2724, 469, (Mar. 1996).

Block and Random Copolymer Resists Designed for 193nm Lithography and Environmentally Friendly Supercritical CO2 Development. Gabor, A.H., Allen, R.D., Gallagher-Wetmore, P.M., Ober, C.K., Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XIII, Proc. SPIE 2724, 410, (Mar. 1996).

Performance Properties of Near-Monodisperse Novolak Resins. Allen, R.D., Chen, K.J.R., Gallagher-Wetmore, P.M.,  Proc. SPIE, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XII, 2483, 250, Santa Clara, 20 Feb (1995).

Molecular Weight, Ionic Strength and Temperature Effects on the Dissolution Rate of Low Molecular Weight Novolac Fractions. Tsiartas, P.C., Simpson, L.L., Willson, C.G., Allen, R.D., Krukonis, V.J., Gallagher-Wetmore, P.M.,  Proc. PMSE, 72, 209, (1995).

Effect of Molecular Weight Distribution on the Dissolution Properties of Novolac Blends. Tsiartas, P.C., Simpson, L.L., Qin, A., Willson, C.G., Allen, R.D., Krukonis, V.J., Gallagher-Wetmore, P.M., Proc. SPIE, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XII, 2438, 261 (1995).

Supercritical Fluid Processing: A New Dry Technique For Photoresist Developing. Gallagher-Wetmore, P.M., Wallraff, G.M., Allen, R.D., Proc. SPIE, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XII, 2438, 694 (1995).

Supercritical Fluid Extraction: Principles and Practice. Second ed., McHugh, M.A., V.J. Krukonis. Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston (1994).

Tailoring Performance Properties of Perfluoroethers via Supercritical Fluid Fractionation. Schonemann, H., Gallagher-Wetmore, P., Krukonis, V., Proc. 3rd Internat. Symp. Supercrit. Fluids, Vol. 3, p.375, Strasbourg (17 Oct 1994).

Supercritical Fluids and Polymers: Present and Future Trends. Gallagher-Wetmore, P.M., Proc. 3rd Internat. Symp. on Supercrit. Fluids, Vol. 3, p.253, Strasbourg, (17 Oct 1994).

Industrial Operations with Supercritical Fluids: Current Processes and Perspectives on the Future. Krukonis, V., Brunner, G., Perrut, M., Proc. 3rd Internat. Symp. on Supercrit. Fluids, Vol. 1, 1, Strasbourg, (17 October 1994).

Recrystallization Using Supercritical Fluids: Novel Techniques for Particle Modification. Gallagher-Wetmore, P., Coffery, M.P., Krukonis, V., Proc. First Int'l Particle Technology Forum, AlChE, Vol. 3, 162, Denver (Aug. 1994).

Application of Supercritical Fluids in Recrystallization: Nucleation and Gas Anti-Solvent (GAS) Techniques. Gallagher-Wetmore, P.M., Coffey, M.P., Krukonis, V., Respiratory Drug Delivery IV, 283 (May 1994).

Precision Parts Cleaning with Supercritical CO2: Practical Applications and Solutions. Gallagher-Wetmore, P., Moy, E., Krukonis, V., Proc. The Fifth Int'l Symp. on Supercritical Fluid Chromatography and Extraction, p.44, Baltimore (Jan. 1994).

Food Processing with Supercritical Fluids: Facts and Fiction. Krukonis, V.J., Gallagher-Wetmore, P.M., Coffey, M.P., Ch. 14, in Science for the Food Industry of the 21st Century, M. Yalpani, ed., ATL press, Science Publishers, Mt. Prospect, IL (1993).

Molecular Weight Dependence and End-Group Effects on the Surface Tension of Poly(-dimethylsiloxane). Jalbert, C., Koberstein, J.Y., Yilgor, I., Gallagher, P.M., Krukonis, V.,  Macromolecules, 26, 3069 (1993).

The Effect of End Groups on Thermodynamics of Immiscible Polymer Blends 1. Interfacial Tension. Fleischer, C.A., Koberstein, J.T., Krukonis, V., Wetmore, P.M., Macromolecules, 26, 4172 (1993).

Gas Anti-Solvent Recrystallization of RDX; Formation of Ultra-fine Particles of a Difficult-to-Comminute Explosive. Gallagher, P.M., Coffey, M.P., Krukonis, V.J., Hillstrom, W.W., J. of Supercritical Fluids, 5, 130 (1992).

Concentration of Eicosapentaenoic Acid by Supercritical Fluid Extraction: A Design Study of a Continuous Production Process. Krukonis, V., Vivian, J.E., Bambara, C.J., Nilsson, W.B., Martin, R.E., Advances in Seafood Biochemistry, G.J. Flick, Jr, R.E. Martin, eds., Technomic Publishing Co (1992).

Gas Anti-Solvent (GAS) Recrystallization: Application to Particle Design, in Particle Design via Crystallization. Gallagher, P.M., Krukonis, V.J., Botsaris, G.D., Ramanarayanon, R., Sikdar, S., Kern, W., Larson, M. eds., AIChE Symp. Series, 284, 87 (1991).

Breaking the Trimethyl Borate-Methanol Azeotrope with Supercritical Methane. Unterreiner, J.M., McHugh, M.A., Krukonis, V.J., I&EC Research, 29, 740 (1991).

Fractionation of High Density Polyethylene in Propane by Isothermal Pressure Profiling and Isobaric Temperature Profiling. Watkins, J.J., Krukonis, V.J., Condo Jr., P.D., Pradhan, D., Ehrlich, P., J. of Supercritical Fluids, 4, 24 (1991).

Precision Parts Cleaning with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. Gallagher, P.M., Krukonis, V.J., Proc. Int'l CFC and Halon Alternatives Conference, Baltimore, p.262, (Dec. 1991).

Development of a Submicron Monodispersed Aerosol Generator Employing Supercritical Fluid Nucleation. Coffey, M.P., Krukonis, V.J., Proc. 2nd Internat. Symp. Supercrit. Fluids, p.360, Boston (May 1991).

Gas Anti-Solvent Recrystallization: Application to the Separation and Subsequent Processing of RDX and HMX. Gallagher, P.M., Krukonis, V.J., VandeKieft, L.J., Proc. 2nd Internat. Symp. Supercrit. Fluids, p.45, Boston (May 1991).

Fractionation of Rocket Propelled Binders with Supercritical and Near Critical Fluids. Watkins, J.J., Krukonis, V.J., Proc. 2nd Internat. Symp. Supercrit. Fluids, p.37, Boston, MA (May 1991).

Supercritical Fluid Processing of Polymers. Gallagher, P.M., Coffey, M.P., Krukonis, V.J.,  Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem.), 31 (1), 668 (1990).

The Application of Supercritical Fluids in the Fractionation and Characterization of Siloxane Oligomers and Graft Copolymers. Elsbernd, C.S., DeSimone, J.M., Hellstern, A.M., Smith, S.D., Gallagher, P.M., Krukonis, V.J., McGrath, J.E., Polym. Prepr. (Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem.) 31(1), (1990).

Synthesis and Fractionation Studies of Functionalized Organosiloxanes. Silicon-Based Polymer Science: A Comprehensive Resource, Elsbernd, C.S., Spinu, M., Krukonis, V., Gallagher, P.M., Mohanty, D.K., McGrath, J.E., J.M. Zeigler and F.W.G. Fearon, eds., Advances in Chemistry Series No. 224, American Chemical Society, Washington DC, p.145 (1990).

Homogeneous and Multiphase Poly(methylmethacrylate) Graft Copolymers via the Macromonomer Method. DeSimone, J.M., Hellstern, A.M., Siochi, E.J., Smith, S.D., Ward, T.C., Gallagher, P.M., Krukonis, V.J., McGrath, J.E.,  Markmol. Chem., Macromol. Symp., 32, p.21-45 (1990).

Supercritical Fluids. McHugh, M.A., Krukonis, V.J., Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Engineering, Vol. 16, 368, Second edition, Mark-Bikales-Overberger-Menges, eds., John Wiley & Sons, New York (1989).

Synthesis, Characterization, and Chemical Composition Distribution Investigations of Graft Copolymers Prepared by the Macromonomer Technique. DeSimone, J.M., Hellstern, A.M., Ward, T.C., McGrath, J.E., Smith, S.D., Gallagher, P.M., Krukonis, V.J., Stejskal, J., Strakova, D., Kratochvil, P.,  Contemporary Topics in Polymer Science, Vol. 6: Multiphase Macromolecular Systems, B.M. Culbertson, ed., Plenum Press, New York (1989).

Supercritical Fluid Processing of Fish Oils: Extraction of Polychlorinated Biphenyls. Krukonis, V.J.:  JAOCS, 66, (6), 818 (1989).

Gas Antisolvent Recrystallization: New Process To Recrystallize Compounds Insoluble in Supercritical Fluids. Gallagher, P.M., Coffey, M.P., Krukonis, V.J., Klasutis, N., Chap 22, Supercritical Fluid Science and Technology, ACS Symposium Series, 406, Washington, DC, K.P. Johnston, J.M.L. Penninger, ed., ACS Publishing (1989).

High Pressure Naphthalene-Xenon Phase Behaviour. McHugh, M.A., Watkins, J.J., Doyle, B.T., Krukonis, V.J.,  I&EC Research, 27, 1205 (1988).

Molecular Weight Distribution and Chemical Composition Distribution Studies of Poly(methylmethacrylate)-co-Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Copolymers. DeSimone, J.M., Smith, S.D., Hellstern, A.M., Ward, T.C., Gallagher, P.M., Krukonis, V.J., McGrath, J.E., Polym. Prepr. (Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem.), 29(1), 361 (1988).

Elucidation of the Chemical Distribution of Graft Copolymers Prepared by the Macromonomer Technique. DeSimone, J.M., Hellstern, A.M., Ward, T.C., McGrath, J.E., Smith, S.D., Gallagher, P.M., Krukonis, V.J., Stejskal, J., Strakova, D., Kratochvil, P., Polym. Prepr. (Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem.), 29(2), 116 (1988).

Supercritical Fluids Applications in Advanced Materials Processing. Wagner, R.A., Krukonis, V.J., Coffey, M.P., Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 121, 11 (1988).

Supercritical Fluid Processing: Current Research and Operations. Krukonis, V.J., Proc. 3rd Internat. Symp. Supercrit. Fluids, Vol. 2, Nice, (17 Oct 1988).

A Novel Impregnation Process: Application to Carbon/Carbon Composites. Wagner, R.A., Krukonis, V.J., Coffey, M.P., Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc., 9, 957-964 (1988).

Reduction in the Toxicity of a Component of an Artificial Blood Substitute by Supercritcal Fluid Fractionation. Lane, T.A., Krukonis, V., Transfusion, 28, No 4, 373 (1988).

Processing with Supercritical Fluids: Overview and Applications. Krukonis, V.J.,  Ch 2. in Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Chromatography, Techniques and Applications, Chapentier, B.A., Sevenants, M.R., eds., ACS Symposium Series 366, ACS, Washington (1988).

Supercritical Fluid Processing of Polymers Used in High Solids Paints and Coatings. Scholsky, K.M., O'Connor, K.M., Weiss, C.S., Krukonis, V.J., High Solids Coatings, 12, 2 (1987).

Synthesis and Supercritical Fluid Fractionation Studies on Aminopropyl-Terminated Polysiloxanes. Elsbernd, C.S., Mohanty, D.K., McGrath, J.E., Gallagher, P.M., and Krukonis, V.J.,  Polym. Prepr. (Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem., 28(2), (1987).

Characterization of Copolymers Fractionated Using Supercritical Fluids. Scholsky, K.M., O'Connor, K.M., Weiss, C.S., Krukonis, V.J., J. App. Polym. Sci., 33, 2925 (1987).

Non-Conventional Approaches to Food Processing in Cells I-Algal Proteins; Characterization and Process Optimization. Nakhost, Z., Karel, M., Krukonis, V.J., Adv. Space Res. 7(4), 29 (1987).

Enzymatic Reactions in Supercritical Gases. Hammond, D.A., Karel, M. Klibinov, A.M., Krukonis, V.J.,Appl. Biochem. and Biotechnol., 11, 393 (1985).

Supercritical Fluid Extraction in Flavor Applications. Krukonis, V.J., Characterization and Measurement of Flavor Compounds, Bells, 154, D.B., Mussinan, C.V., eds., ACS Symp. Series 289, ACS, Washington (1985).

Solubility of Solid Aromatic Isomers in Carbon Dioxide. Krukonis, V.J., Kurnik, R.T., J. of Chem. & Eng. Data, 30, 247 (1985).

Processing of Polymers with Supercritical Fluids. Krukonis, V.,  Polym. News, 11, 7 (1985).

Novel Supercritical Fluid Techniques for Polymer Fractionation and Purification. 1. Background. Yilgor, I., McGrath, J.E., Krukonis, V.J., Polym. Bull., 12, 491-497 (1984).

Novel Supercritical Fluid Techniques for Polymer Fractionation and Purification. 2. Fractionation and Characterization of Functional Siloxane Oligomers. Yilgor, I., McGrath, J.E., Krukonis, V.J., Polym. Bull., 12, 499-506 (1984).